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Owlscrying
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Data suggest black holes swallow stellar debris in bursts
03/16/17 at 19:40:22
 
In the center of a distant galaxy, almost 300 million light years from Earth, scientists have discovered a supermassive black hole that is "choking" on a sudden influx of stellar debris.

In a paper published today in Astrophysical Journal Letters, researchers from MIT, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and elsewhere report on a "tidal disruption flare"a dramatic burst of electromagnetic activity that occurs when a black hole obliterates a nearby star. The flare was first discovered on Nov. 11, 2014, and scientists have since trained a variety of telescopes on the event to learn more about how black holes grow and evolve.

The MIT-led team looked through data collected by two different telescopes and identified a curious pattern in the energy emitted by the flare: As the obliterated star's dust fell into the black hole, the researchers observed small fluctuations in the optical and ultraviolet (UV) bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This very same pattern repeated itself 32 days later, this time in the X-ray band.

The researchers used simulations of the event performed by others to infer that such energy "echoes" were produced from the following scenario: As a star migrated close to the black hole, it was quickly ripped apart by the black hole's gravitational energy. The resulting stellar debris, swirling ever closer to the black hole, collided with itself, giving off bursts of optical and UV light at the collision sites. As it was pulled further in, the colliding debris heated up, producing X-ray flares, in the same pattern as the optical bursts, just before the debris fell into the black hole.

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Owlscrying
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Re: Data suggest black holes swallow stellar debris in bursts
Reply #1 - 03/16/17 at 19:40:45
 
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Credit: NASA/Swift/Aurore Simonnet, Sonoma State University

In this artist's rendering, a thick accretion disk has formed around a supermassive black hole following the tidal disruption of a star that wandered too close. Stellar debris has fallen toward the black hole and collected into a thick chaotic disk of hot gas. Flashes of X-ray light near the center of the disk result in light echoes that allow astronomers to map the structure of the funnel-like flow, revealing for the first time strong gravity effects around a normally quiescent black hole.

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Re: Data suggest black holes swallow stellar debris in bursts
Reply #2 - 03/16/17 at 19:43:02
 


This artists rendering illustrates new findings about a star shredded by a black hole. When a star wanders too close to a black hole, intense tidal forces rip the star apart.

In these events, called tidal disruptions, some of the stellar debris is flung outward at high speed while the rest falls toward the black hole. This causes a distinct X-ray flare that can last for a few years.

During the tidal disruption event, filaments containing much of the star's mass fall toward the black hole. Eventually these gaseous filaments merge into a smooth, hot disk glowing brightly in X-rays.

As the disk forms, its central region heats up tremendously, which drives a flow of material, called a wind, away from the disk.



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